Aromaticity in Boron Clusters Survives Radical Structural Changes

Whereas the aromaticity of closo boranes is widely accepted, less is known about the aromaticity of nido boranes. This work carried out by Prof. Francesc Teixidor, Prof. Clara Viñas, and Dr. Ines Bennour of the Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Prof. Jordi Poater at the University of Barcelona (previous DiMoCat member) and Sílvia Escayola and Prof. Miquel Solà members of the DiMoCat group of the Institute of Computational Chemistry and Catalysis of the University of Girona, experimentally shows that deboronation of m-C2B9H12 is a difficult task, whereas deboranation of o-C2B9H12 is quite easy. Moreover, it is widely known that o-C2B10H12 isomerizes to m-C2B10H12 upon heating at 400 ºC. These two facts indicate that m-C2B10H12 is more stable than o-C2B10H12. To find a reason for the different stability of these two isomers, authors have analyzed the thermodynamic stability and aromaticity of these closo carboranes and their nido counterparts. Results show that the higher thermodynamic stability of m-C2B10H12 is not related to aromaticity differences but to the location of the C atoms in the carborane structure. It is also demonstrated that the aromaticity observed in closo boranes and carboranes is also present in their nido counterparts and, consequently, authors conclude that aromaticity in boron clusters survives radical structural changes. Further, sandwich metallocenes (e.g. ferrocene) and sandwich metallacarboranes (e.g. [Co(C2B9H11)2]) have traditionally been considered similar. In this work, it is shown that they are not. Metallacarboranes display global aromaticity, whereas metallocenes present local aromaticity in the ligands. Remarkable and unique is the double probe given by 1H- and 11B-NMR tracing the reciprocally antipodal endocyclic open face Hec and B1. These magnetic studies have permitted to correlate both nuclei and relate them to a diatropic current in the plane at the middle of the nido-[C2B9H12]. This observation is the first and unique data that proves experimentally the existence of diatropic currents, thence aromaticity, in nido clusters and is comparable to the existence of diatropic currents in planar aromatic compounds.



Poater, J.; Viñas, C.; Bennour, I.; Escayola, S.; Solà*, M.; Teixidor*, F. Too Persistent to Give Up: Aromaticity in Boron Clusters Survives Radical Structural Changes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2020, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.0c02228

Financial support: This work has been supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) of Spain (Projects CTQ2017-85341-P, CTQ2016-77558-R, and MDM-2017-0767) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (projects 2017SGR39 and 2017SGR348). Excellent service by the Supercomputer center of the Consorci de Serveis Universitaris de Catalunya (CSUC) is gratefully acknowledged.

Discovered a new non-covalent interaction between boron nido clusters and aromatic rings

Exploration and comprehension of chemical bonding is one of the central tasks in chemistry. Here, a new non‐covalent interaction, a nido‐cage···π bond, is discovered in a collaborative work between Deshuang Du and Prof. Yan from Nanjing University and Prof. Jordi Poater at the University of Barcelona (previous DiMoCat member) and Prof. Miquel Solà from the DiMoCat group of the Institute of Computational Chemistry and Catalysis of the University of Girona. The new interaction found is between the boron cluster C2B9H12 and several aromatic π systems. The X‐ray diffraction studies indicate that the nido‐cage···π bonding presents parallel‐displaced or T‐shaped geometries. The theoretical calculations confirms that this nido‐cage···π  bond shares a similar nature to the conventional anion···π or π···π bonds found in classical aromatic ring systems. Besides, such a nido‐cage···π interaction induces variable photophysical properties such as aggregation‐induced emission and aggregation‐caused quenching in one molecule. This work offers an overall understanding towards the boron cluster‐based non‐covalent bond and opens a door to investigate its properties.

Tu, D.; Yan, H.; Poater, J.; Solà, M. “nido‐Cage···π Bond: A Non‐covalent Interaction between Boron Clusters and Aromatic Rings and Its Applications” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020,  DOI: 10.1002/anie.201915290

Two new PhD students in the DiMoCat group

We have recently incorporated two new PhD students in our group with two cotutelle agreements.

First, Daniel Eduardo Trujillo that will perform a theoretical study of the electronic structure and reaction mechanisms of reactions of multiple-bound boron compounds that can activate C-C and C-H bonds. Daniel will be supervised by J. Oscar C. Jimenez-Halla and Gerardo Gonzalez in the University of Guanajauto (Mexico) and Miquel Solà in the University of Girona.

A photo of Daniel E. Trujillo

Second, Dandan Chen that will be working in the study of aromatic species with special emphasis in metalloaromatic species in excited states. Dandan will be supervised by Jun Zhu in Xiamen University (China) and Miquel Solà in the University of Girona.

A photo of Dandan Chen

We wish Daniel and Dandan a great success with their PhD research!

Two recent DiMoCat works highlighted by ChemistryWorld

ChemistryWorld has recently highlighted two works of our group:

The jellium model assumes a uniform distribution of positive charge corresponding to the cluster atomic nuclei and their innermost electrons in which the interacting valence electrons move. The energy levels of valence electrons for such a model are 1S21P61D102S21F142P61G182D103S2…, where S, P, D, F, and G letters denote the angular momentum and numbers 1, 2, 3 indicate the radial nodes. The abundance found in experimental mass spectra of alkali, alkaline earth metals, and gold clusters of 2, 8, 18, 20, 34, 40… atoms are justified taken into account that these numbers correspond to closed-shell electronic structures in the jellium model. We have proven that if the last energy level of valence electrons for the jellium model is half-filled with same-spin electrons, the system has also an aromatic character that provides extra stability. This situation is reached for the magic numbers of valence electrons of 1 (S =1/2), 5 (S = 3/2), 13 (S = 5/2), 19 (S = 1/2), 27 (S = 7/2), 37 (S = 3/2), 49 (S = 9/2)… This new set of magic numbers may become a powerful tool for researchers who work in the quest for stable single high-spin molecules for their use as single-molecule based magnets. The paper has been published in Chem. Commun. and can be found in the following link Chem. Commun., 55 (2019) 5559-5562.

In this recent Chem. Commun. paper, we have proved that C18 (a cycle of 18 carbon atoms connected with alternating single and triple bonds) it is an electron acceptor of similar characteristics as C60. C18  when coupled with a range of donor molecules can readily accept electrons. Electron acceptors are important components in molecular electronic devices and solar cells, and, therefore, C18 is added to the list of organic electron acceptors that can be potentially useful in photovoltaics.